Ethereum Layer 2 Science | Nitro and AnyTrust on the Arbitrum blockchain, what is it?

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Ethereum Layer 2 Science | Nitro and AnyTrust on the Arbitrum blockchain, what is it?
Paxful


The Ethereum-based L2 (Layer 2 network, Layer2) will become the main position for cryptocurrency market activities. At present, Rollup is still in the early trial stage. Judging from the current total locked asset size of Ethereum L2, Arbitrum’s market share number one. In response to the increased interaction, Arbitrum also plans to launch Nitro and AnyTrust. (Recap:V God praises the Optimism community governance culture! OP rebounded from the bottom and rose 57%) (event background:V God admits: Ethereum cannot be commercialized on a large scale yet, and Layer 2 expansion is an urgent need)

OfI also mentioned a possibility of the future evolution of the blockchain: Ethereum-based L2 will surpass most non-Ethereum L1 (Layer1) public chains (except for a few with good ecological development), and become the main position for future encryption activities.

The main task of Ethereum L1 is to provide L2 with the most scarce resource in the field of encryption: security. In the future, exchanges, loans and other interactions on Ethereum L1 will be rare, and even ETH transfers on Ethereum L1 will become rare. L2 will become the main position of encryption activities, and there will be more and more L2, and it is unlikely that there are only these L2 projects today.

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Ethereum-based L2 will be the main front for crypto activity. At present, Rollup is still in the early trial stage. Judging from the current total locked assets of Ethereum L2, TVL is US$4.87 billion, of which Arbitrum’s market share is 53.5%, ranking first.

Further reading:Novice Science | One article explains the important infrastructure of “Metaverse and Web3 Era”: Rollup, Polkadot, Cosmos…

Further reading:Dismantling the current status of L2|Layer 2 plans are launched on the main network and issued tokens. What is the adoption situation?

Current L2 TVL situation, L2beats data

Considering that in the top ten, some L2’s TVL accounts for more than 30% of their own tokens. In fact, in the absence of any token economic mechanism incentives, there are actually very few L2s with TVLs of more than 60 million US dollars. At present, Arbitrum has not launched a token economic mechanism.

As interaction increases on Arbitrum, so does its fee.

In response, Arbitrum also plans to launch Nitro and AnyTrust in an attempt to reduce fees and provide throughput. Of course, there are certain tradeoffs, especially the AnyTrust chain, which makes a considerable tradeoff between decentralization and security.

Further reading:Ethereum Future | Compared to other Layer2 Rollup solutions, what is the advantage of Arbitrum?

Nitro

According to Arbitrum, Nitro has the following points:

New Prover is one of the core of Nitro. It enables Arbitrum’s classic interactive fraud proofs on WASM code; the L2 Arbitrum engine can be written and compiled using standard languages ​​and tools, replacing the custom languages ​​and compilers used today. In normal execution, validators and nodes run the Nitro engine (compiled to native code), switching to WASM when fraud proofs are required.

Compile Geth core to Arbitrum

Geth is considered to actually define the EVM engine, and Nitro replaces the current custom EVM emulator with Geth.

A stripped-down version of ArbOS components rewritten in Go

It provides the required parts to run an L2 chain, such as cross-chain communication, batch processing, compression systems, etc. These can reduce L1 cost.

Various components of Nitro have been implemented such as Fraud Proof, Sequencer, Token Bridge, Advanced Data Call Compression, etc. Arbitrum launches a fully functional development network based on the Ethereum Görli testnet. Developers can view the testnet and build on it. On Nitro’s stack, new extension modes can be built. For example, Arbitrum’s AnyTrust chain is also implemented on top of the Nitro stack.

Arbitrum plans to seamlessly migrate the existing Arbitrum One to Arbitrum Nitro, that is, the process will be insensitive to users (all state on-chain is preserved, with a few hours of planned downtime).

Once successfully migrated, users can experience lower fees and faster interactions.

AnyTrust Chain

Also mentioned above, based on the Nitro stack, Arbitrum plans to launch the AnyTrust chain. It’s an L2 chain, and AnyTrust will run concurrently with Arbitrum One (Arbitrum Nitro after iteration). AnyTrust chain is different from ordinary sidechains

Existing sidechains can meet the demand for higher throughput, why do you need AnyTrust chain? Compared with ordinary side chains, AnyTrust chain requires less trust, which is beneficial to improve processing efficiency.

According to Arbitrum:

The AnyTrust Chain operates with a committee of nodes that make minimum assumptions about the honesty of these node members. It gives an example: Suppose the node committee consists of 20 members, of which at least 2 nodes are honest. In traditional sidechains, at least more than 2/3 of the members are generally required to be honest, that is, out of 20 members, at least 14 members are required to be reliable. The AnyTrust chain greatly reduces the minimum number of honest nodes, an important reason for which is the use of the Rollup function.

If the above assumptions hold, then it is safe for nodes to provide data through the committee and record the hash of transaction batches on L1, thus saving the cost of Rollup. That is, if a quorum signature promises to provide the data backing a batch of transactions, it is available to anyone who needs it, and it is safe to publish a hash of that data. If a quorum signs a statement that a particular state transition is correct, that state transition can be accepted without waiting for a challenge period. Withdrawals to L1 can be executed immediately if the committee provides a guarantee. Of the 20 committee members, 19 pledge by signature.

If there are at least 2 honest members and 19 of the 20 nodes sign, then it means that at least one honest member signs. That is, out of a committee of 20, as long as 2 are honest + any transaction signed by a quorum of 19 committee members will be correct. The reason is that there are at least two honest members and only one member does not sign, so the quorum (signers) must include at least one honest node.

Assuming members don’t sign? Or a large number of members refuse to cooperate or not function properly? Then, the chain can still run, and it will fall back to the original Rollup protocol. That is, the current way of operation. Data is still published on Ethereum L1, and extraction still requires a delay of about a week. When the committee is up and running, the chain switches back to the cheaper and faster mode.

In a committee of 20 nodes, 19 members function normally to achieve lower cost operation.

Why Launch AnyTrust Chain?

Aribtrum started as L2, which adopted the model of Optimistic Rollup. It is based on the security of the Ethereum chain (L1), while achieving lower transaction costs and higher throughput through the Rollup method.

However, there are some applications, such as the gaming field, which have relatively low requirements for security and high requirements in terms of transaction cost and throughput. The AnyTrust chain trades off security and is more efficient to build through the mode of node committee operation. High side chains, trying to meet different needs.

Ecological Impact of Nitro and AnyTrust Chain

If the Nitro and AnyTrust chains prove to be able to operate normally in practice, then this will greatly improve the projects on Arbitrum. For example, some game projects in the MAGIC ecosystem have already started. If the throughput can be improved, the transaction cost can be reduced. , then there is a chance to attract more users to participate.

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